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Here’s what we know about salary transparency: Workers are more motivated when salaries are transparent. They work harder, they’re more productive, and they’re better at collaborating with colleagues. Across the board, pay transparency seems to be a good thing.
Transparency isn’t just about business bottom line, however. Researchers say transparency is important because keeping salaries secret reinforces discrimination.
“From a worker’s perspective, without accurate information about peer compensation, they may not know when they’re being underpaid,” said Emiliano Huet-Vaughn, an economist at U.C.L.A. who ran a study in 2013 that found workers are more productive when salary is transparent. Without knowing what other workers’ salaries look like, “it naturally becomes harder to make the case that one is suffering a form of pay discrimination,” Dr. Huet-Vaughn said.
For example, in 2017, the Department of Labor filed a lawsuit and investigation against Google. Their regional director Janette Wipper told the Guardian, “discrimination against women in Google is quite extreme, even in this industry.” The suit claimed that Google refused to disclose data on employee salary history, as required by equal opportunity laws.
Which brings us to the wage gap. Rather than a deliberate, methodical attempt to sabotage women’s earnings, often the wage gap takes on more subtle, but no less detrimental forms. For example, women are viewed as less likable when they negotiate. They’re also less likely than men to get what they want when they ask for a raise, according to Harvard Business Review.
“By keeping compensation secret, we might obscure structural inequalities and enable inequalities to persist,” said Morela Hernandez, a researcher and Associate Professor of Business Administration at the Darden School of Business at the University of Virginia. In the big picture, it’s easy to see how these biases might contribute to a wage gap, but it’s harder to prove wage discrimination on an individual level. Employers can hide “structural inequalities” (even from themselves) with a myriad explanations. When wages are transparent, it’s harder to hide.
It’s not just women. Pay secrecy reinforces racial biases as well, and the pay gap is wider for black and Hispanic men and women, according to a recent report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In a study with her colleague Derek R. Avery of the Wake Forest University School of Business, Dr. Hernandez found that when black job applicants negotiated their starting salaries, evaluators viewed them as more pushy than white job applicants who also negotiated. Evaluators also mistakenly thought black job applicants negotiated more than white applicants, even when they negotiated the same amount. Worse still, the black job applicants received lower starting salaries as a result of this.
Dr. Hernandez said that because evaluators expected black job seekers to ask for less, they perceived the black applicants as pushy when they negotiated and penalized them accordingly. In the real world, employers probably aren’t even aware of this dynamic; that’s how unconscious biases work. When numbers are out in the open, however, it’s easier to see potential blind spots.
“In my opinion, transparency in pay can be one way to help us calibrate our own views of fairness and appropriate compensation,” Dr. Hernandez said.
Katharine Bolin, a marketing professional in Minneapolis, said she once discovered a male colleague earned more than her by accident.
“In my mid-twenties, I was a D.J. at a downtown bar in Minneapolis,” she said. “I was asked to let a new male D.J. shadow me in the booth for part of his interview. Everything was going great until he said, ‘This is a pretty good gig for an hour.’ I was livid.”
Earlier that week, Ms. Bolin had asked for a raise for that same amount, but she was offered less. She confronted her manager about the situation.
“I said that I was very upset as a woman and a longtime employee to hear that a potential new male hire was getting offered more than me,” she said. Her manager relented, offering her the same amount. “It’s one of my proudest moments standing up for myself.” Ms. Bolin closed her own gap, but it wouldn’t have happened without transparency.
If you find yourself in a similar situation, you may want to approach the conversation more cautiously, without calling out another co-worker.
“I caution clients against basing their salary negotiation requests on, ‘So-and-so is earning X dollars, so I should, too,’” said Devon Smiley, a negotiation consultant. Ms. Smiley suggested “approaching an employer with something like, ‘Based on my market research and discussions with people within my network who are in similar roles, an uplift of X percent would reflect my contributions.’ ”
President Barack Obama signed an executive order “prohibiting federal contractors from retaliating against employees who choose to discuss their compensation” in 2014. But before that, some states had already passed laws to outlaw pay secrecy. Many of these laws kept employers from enacting any kind of rules to keep workers from talking about salaries openly. Workers fared better in these states, according to research from Marlene Kim at the University of Massachusetts. In an article published in Industrial Relations, Dr. Kim found that “women with higher education levels who live in states that have outlawed pay secrecy have higher earnings, and that the wage gap is consequently reduced.”
Dr. Huet-Vaughn said that government policies that require pay transparency are necessary, but they won’t fix the problem entirely.
“Information alone is not enough. Remedying such discrimination will require institutions — governments, unions, courts, political and advocacy organizations — with a willingness to make use of that information,” he said. Transparency may not be the cure-all to inequity, but we need a starting point.
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This week I’ve invited writer Kara Godfrey to tell us all why we should send out a real, I.R.L. card to a loved one.
We use our phones to offer “congratulations” or a simple “how are things going,” so it can be easy to think we are better connected than ever. But when was the last time you sent out a physical, written card to someone?
One of my favorite ways to spend a spare hour of the weekend is to peruse a stationery store for different cards and postcards. Part of the joy is making that perfect choice: the awful gin pun for your best friend, a pretty floral design for your auntie or a simple thank you for your dad.
The beauty of writing a card results in more meaning and thought being put into what you’re trying to say. Not unlike that first page of your new notebook where the neatest handwriting is usually found, a card makes every word count.
Receiving an unexpected card in the mail is pure joy — it’s a lovely surprise to break up the usual habit of sifting through bills, junk mail and fliers. Sometimes a simple note that says you’re thinking of someone can mean the world. The no reason at all cards my mom sent me every month at university are some of my most treasured possessions.
Give a rest to the mistake-ridden texts, the long-winded WhatsApps messages and the sporadic group chat conversations, and try to send a note the old-fashioned way for a change.B:
横店战庄解跑狗图【欧】【阳】【云】【霄】【消】【失】【之】【后】，【李】【睿】【走】【到】【庆】【鸿】【凯】【面】【前】【说】【道】：“【岳】【父】【大】【人】，” 【庆】【鸿】【凯】【点】【点】【头】：“【小】【睿】，【以】【后】【韵】【儿】【就】【交】【给】【你】【了】，【作】【为】【你】【的】【亲】【人】【我】【肯】【定】【会】【不】【予】【余】【力】【的】【支】【持】【你】【们】【的】【计】【划】，” 【李】【睿】【点】【点】【头】：“【多】【谢】，【岳】【父】【的】【支】【持】，” 【庆】【鸿】【凯】：“【那】【么】【我】【明】【天】【就】【会】【宣】【布】【你】【和】【韵】【儿】【的】【婚】【事】，【下】【个】【月】【十】【五】【号】【就】【是】【一】【个】【好】【日】【子】，【日】【子】【就】【定】【在】
“【真】【的】。” 【李】【起】【一】【听】【老】【汉】【说】【知】【道】【有】【一】【条】【路】，【顿】【时】【大】【喜】，【激】【动】【得】【紧】【抓】【住】【那】【老】【汉】【的】【手】【不】【放】。 “【老】【伯】，【你】【快】【说】【这】【条】【路】【在】【哪】【里】，【此】【事】【事】【关】【四】【川】【百】【姓】【福】【祉】，【事】【关】【我】【大】【明】【天】【下】【安】【危】，【还】【请】【老】【伯】【定】【要】【助】【我】。” 【那】【老】【汉】【见】【李】【起】【并】【没】【有】【追】【究】【他】【开】【始】【隐】【瞒】【事】【情】【的】【罪】【过】，【心】【中】【也】【是】【顿】【时】【放】【心】，【而】【后】【便】【道】：“【请】【皇】【上】【随】【老】【汉】【来】，【老】【汉】【这】
【从】【发】【文】【到】【今】【天】【的】【完】【结】，【短】【短】【的】【一】【本】【书】【却】【让】【我】【纠】【结】【了】【很】【久】。 【因】【为】【是】【第】【一】【本】【书】，【因】【为】【是】【萌】【新】【作】【者】，【更】【因】【为】【时】【间】【不】【充】【足】！ 【幸】【好】，【还】【算】【顺】【利】。 【未】【来】【的】【道】【路】【还】【有】【很】【长】，【相】【信】【我】【们】【能】【够】【越】【走】【越】【远】。 【在】【此】，【谢】【谢】**【爱】【们】【对】【小】【婉】【的】【支】【持】【和】【喜】【欢】！ 【我】【会】【调】【整】【好】【最】【佳】【的】【时】【间】，【携】【带】【新】【书】【去】【面】【见】【你】【们】【的】。 【么】【么】【哒】～
【张】【涛】【怀】【疑】【这】【只】【是】【一】【场】【幻】【象】…【或】【者】【这】【是】【梦】【境】。 【但】【是】…【该】【怎】【么】【醒】【过】【来】？ 【或】【者】【这】【不】【是】【幻】【象】？ 【自】【己】【身】【上】【的】【血】【什】【么】【的】，【还】【有】【闪】【现】【也】【没】【法】【用】。 【这】【么】【多】【的】【异】【常】【情】【况】，【如】【果】【这】【是】【一】【个】【幻】【象】，【那】【也】【太】【假】【了】。 【这】【么】【多】【不】【合】【理】【的】【地】【方】，【大】【多】【数】【人】【都】【会】【发】【现】。 ……【张】【涛】【走】【到】【众】【英】【雄】【面】【前】…… 【一】【堆】【马】【赛】【克】…… 【这】【么】横店战庄解跑狗图【小】【江】【也】【就】【是】【店】【员】，【将】【手】【中】【的】【行】【李】【箱】【在】【门】【口】【放】【好】，【面】【上】【堆】【着】【笑】【解】【释】，“【您】【看】【看】，【又】【误】【会】【我】【了】【不】【是】？”。 “【这】【不】【都】【是】【为】【了】【我】【们】【聚】【宝】【斋】【嘛】，【等】【我】【在】【博】【通】【古】【今】【学】【成】【归】【来】，【也】【就】【是】【我】【们】【的】【发】【财】【之】【日】【了】，【现】【在】【店】【里】【缺】【我】【一】【个】【也】【没】【啥】，【但】【是】【我】【能】【从】【博】【通】【古】【今】【偷】【师】【再】【反】【馈】【过】【来】，【那】【可】【就】【赚】【大】【了】！”【小】【江】【边】【说】【边】【打】【量】【许】【六】【的】【脸】【色】。 “
【镇】【南】【军】【这】【边】【既】【然】【已】【经】【喊】【出】【了】【世】【子】【威】【武】【的】【口】【号】，【李】【斌】【就】【不】【准】【备】【让】【自】【己】【的】【长】【子】**【再】【继】【续】【参】【与】【斗】【将】。 【草】【原】【联】【军】【得】【知】【上】【场】【斗】【将】【的】【是】【镇】【南】【军】【的】【世】【子】【以】【后】，【万】【一】【弄】【出】【什】【么】【诡】【计】【可】【就】【糟】【糕】【了】。 【草】【原】【联】【军】【那】【边】，【胡】【戎】【族】【可】【汗】【席】【日】【力】【格】【的】【脸】【色】，【已】【经】【变】【的】【十】【分】【难】【看】。 【浩】【吉】【格】【和】【满】【塔】【善】，【都】【是】【胡】【戎】【族】【数】【一】【数】【二】【的】【高】【手】，【且】【又】【都】【是】
【不】【肯】【和】【亲】【归】【去】【来】（26） **【和】【少】【府】【同】【时】【看】【向】【声】【援】，【关】【无】【忘】【正】【将】【帘】【子】【放】【下】，【便】【上】【前】【行】【礼】【道】， “【臣】【见】【过】【太】【子】【殿】【下】。” **【道】， “【太】【傅】【这】【话】【中】【之】【意】，【是】【劝】【本】【宫】【去】【漠】【北】【十】【三】【城】？” 【关】【无】【忘】【笑】， “【那】【是】【自】【然】，【如】【今】【长】【安】【之】【中】【没】【有】【您】【的】【兵】【马】，【您】【一】【定】【也】【觉】【得】【处】【处】【都】【被】【掣】【肘】，【既】【然】【您】【已】【经】【掌】【握】【了】【朝】【堂】，【为】【何】
小 狗 在 哪 买 2019-02-21 21:24:28
狗 狗 团 购 2019-06-04 09:13:14
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